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托福考试阅读真题全面解读
2013-06-21 17:34:26   来源:世纪留学网   评论:0 点击:

第一篇:
    铸币业minting
    由于银矿的发现,铸币业开始产生。中世纪商人可以仅携带少量银币出行,促进了长途贸易的发展。由此,商业行会形成,商人之间mutual trust刺激credit机制的产生。
    Medieval minting
    Alterations in the flan (the coin disk, a term deriving from the French flatir, “to beat flat”) led to corresponding changes in the manufacture of dies. In about AD 220 the Sāsānian dynasty of Iran introduced the concept of thin flan coins, issues that were struck in relief on both sides. In order not to produce intolerable stresses in the dies, since the thinner the material the more force necessary to make it flow into the recesses of the die's design, the depth of relief on such coins was of necessity much shallower than with earlier currency. Such techniques spread by way of Byzantium to northern Europe, where the emperor Charlemagne struck thin flan deniers (small silver coins), or pennies, which became characteristic of both his own and neighbouring kingdoms.
    The Franks and Saxons inherited an art that was formalistic rather than realistic, and this permitted their coin designs to be made up from a small number of standard elements that were reproducible using punches. It has been shown, for example, that the complete dies for all of the coin types of Edward the Confessor of England could be obtained from seven punches, giving individual wedges, crescents, pellets, and bars, each of which was independently struck to make up a legend and design. Consequently, a single workshop could supply the 70 or so contemporary English mints in a relatively short time. An experimental pair of dies took less than an hour to fabricate. Of course, many European dies were produced by a combination of punching and engraving, while engraving alone was typical of early Islamic and contemporary Oriental dies. With the advent of larger denominations, such as the gros tournois (based on the weight standard of Tours, in France) in the 13th century, more florid designs came to be preferred, but the elements of the royal crown, for example, or the letters of the legend were still punched into the dies. To judge from surviving specimens, both upper and lower dies (trussells and piles) were by then produced from wrought iron. While the upper die retained the cylindrical shape of antiquity, the lower die was tanged (having protrusions added) so that it could be wedged into a wooden block.
    The thin silver sheet required for the new coins needed to be beaten out from its cast state, and this in turn necessitated annealing (strengthening by slow cooling) to prevent cracking. By the 10th century, squares of sheet, somewhat larger than the eventual penny, were being struck between square dies and then separated by a circular cutter. A few imitative coins on square flans are known from Scandinavia, while die identical coins have exactly matching edge irregularities, proving use of the same cutter. With the introduction of the gros tournois, the blanks were cut roughly circular with shears, then gripped by special tongs in rouleaux (columnar rolls) of a dozen or more, and finally hammered into circularity on a flat anvil. Alternatively, the silver was cast into thin rods of rectangular section; pieces of the correct length (and hence weight) were next cut from the rod by chisel and then, with several annealings, were beaten to the appropriate thickness, before being rounded and struck by a die. Blanching (cleaning) of the blanks by an acid dip was necessary before striking to produce an acceptable surface if oxidation had occurred during annealing.
    Striking was carried out in much the same way as during antiquity, although contemporary illustrations indicate that only one operator, not a team, was employed. Twelfth-century Byzantine coins were often cup shaped. A full impression of the curved dies could not easily be obtained by one blow; hence there evolved a method of striking one half of the coin with a slightly inclined upper die, which was then rocked over to the other side for a second blow. Bracteates, issues of foil thickness, were common in 12th-century Germany. To make these, a single die was used to strike a column of several blanks resting on a piece of leather, so that the reverse of each was the incuse (hollowed impression) of the obverse. Die life in general was higher than during antiquity, and documentary evidence for 13th-century English pence indicates perhaps 30,000 coins per obverse. There is no evidence for production rates.

原文来源:http://www.21liuxue.com/toefl/show-57-332.html


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